07 february 2023

Mediterranean Diet and Obesity-related Disorders: What is the Evidence?

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is a chronic disease, a major public health problem due to its association with non-communicable diseases and all-cause mortality. Indeed, people with obesity are at increased risk for a variety of obesity-related disorders including hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and several cancers. Many popular diets with very different macronutrient composition, including the Mediterranean diet (MD), have been used, proposed, and studied for prevention and management of obesity.

In particular, MD has been the subject of countless studies over the years and now boasts a large body of scientific literature. In this review, we aimed to update current knowledge by summarizing the most recent evidence on the effect of MD on obesity and obesity-related disorders.

RECENT FINDINGS: The negative effects of obesity are partly reversed by substantial weight loss that can be achieved with MD, especially when low-calorie and in combination with adequate physical activity. In addition, the composition of MD has been correlated with an excellent effect on reducing dyslipidemia. It also positively modulates the gut microbiota and immune system, significantly decreasing inflammatory mediators, a common ground for many obesity-related disorders. People with obesity are at increased risk for a variety of medical disorders including hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease.

Therefore, there is an inevitable need for measures to manage obesity and its related disorders. At this point, MD has been proposed as a valuable nutritional intervention. It is characterized by a high consumption of vegetables, fruit, nuts, cereals, whole grains, and extra virgin olive oil, as well as a moderate consumption of fish and poultry, and a limited intake of sweets, red meat, and dairy products. MD proves to be the healthiest dietary pattern available to tackle obesity and prevent several non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.

Additional Info

  • Authors

    Muscogiuri G.; Verde L.; Sulu C.; Katsiki N.; Hassapidou M.; Frias-Toral E.; Cucalon G.; Pazderska A.; Yumuk V. D.; Colao A.; Barrea L.
  • Issue

    volume 11
  • Published Date

    07 february 2023