Impact of metabolic risk factors on hepatic and cardiac outcomes in patients with alcohol- and non-alcohol-related fatty liver disease

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Metabolic risk factors (MetRs) are associated with hepatic and cardiac outcomes in patients with fatty liver disease (FLD). We evaluated whether MetRs have different effects on alcoholic FLD (AFLD) and non-alcoholic FLD (NAFLD).

METHODS: We used a standardised common data model to analyse data from seven university hospital databases between 2006 and 2015. MetRs included diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and obesity. Follow-up data were analysed for the incidence of hepatic outcomes, cardiac outcomes, and death in patients with AFLD or NAFLD and based on MetRs within AFLD and NAFLD.

RESULTS: Out of 3,069 and 17,067 patients with AFLD and NAFLD, respectively, 2,323 (75.7%) and 13,121 (76.9%) had one or more MetR, respectively. Patients with AFLD were at a higher risk of hepatic outcomes (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 5.81) compared with those with NAFLD irrespective of MetR. The risk of cardiac outcomes in AFLD and NAFLD became similar with the increasing number of MetRs. Patients with NAFLD without MetRs demonstrated a lower risk of cardiac outcomes, but not hepatic outcomes, compared with those with MetRs (aRR, 0.66 and 0.61 for MetR >/=1 and MetR >/=2, respectively; p <0.05). In patients with AFLD, hepatic and cardiac outcomes were not associated with MetRs.

CONCLUSIONS: The clinical impact of MetRs in patients with FLD may differ between patients with AFLD and those with NAFLD.

IMPACT AND IMPLICATIONS: With the increasing prevalence of fatty liver disease (FLD) and metabolic syndrome, the increase in associated complications, such as liver and heart diseases, has become an important social issue. Particularly in patients with FLD with excessive alcohol consumption, the incidence of liver and heart disease is pronounced because of the dominant effect of alcohol over the effects of other factors. Thus, appropriate screening and management of alcohol consumption in patients with FLD are vital.

Additional Info

  • Authors

    Lim J.; Sang H.; Kim H. I.
  • Issue

    J Lim et al.  JHEP Rep (2023)
  • Published Date