14 may 2024

Type of Alcohol and Blood Pressure: The Copenhagen General Population Study

BACKGROUND: Most adults ingest alcoholic beverages. Alcohol shows strong and positive associations with blood pressure (BP). We hypothesized that intake of red wine, white wine, beer, and spirits and dessert wine show similar associations with BP in the general population.

METHODS: We included 104,467 males and females aged 20-100 years in the analysis of the Danish general population. Alcohol use and type of alcohol were assessed by questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured by automated digital BP manometer. Multivariable linear regression models were used when analyzing the association between number of drinks per week and BP, stratified by sex and adjusted for relevant confounders. Each alcohol type (red wine, white wine, beer, and spirits and dessert wine) was analyzed in similar models including adjustment for other alcohol types.

RESULTS: Most of the subjects (76,943 [73.7%]) drank more than 1 type of alcohol. However, 12,093 (12.6%) consumed red wine only, 4288 (4.5%) beer only, 1815 (1.9%) white wine only, and 926 (1.0%) spirits and dessert wine only. There was a dose-response association between total drinks per week and systolic and diastolic BP (SBP, DBP) (P < .001). The crude difference was 11 mmHg SBP and 7 mmHg DBP between high (>35 drinks per week) and low (1-2 drinks per week) alcohol intake. Overall, SBP was increased by 0.15-0.17 mmHG, and DBP was increased by 0.08-0.15 mmHg per weekly drink. After stratification for age and sex, effects were slightly higher among females and among individuals aged less than 60 years.

CONCLUSION: Alcohol intake is associated with highly significant increased SPB and DBP. The effect is similar for red wine, white wine, beer, and spirits.

Additional Info

  • Authors

    Jensen G. B.; Gronbaek M.; Jensen M. T.; Schnohr P.; Nordestgaard B. G.; Lavie C. J.; O'Keefe J. H.; Marott J. L.
  • Issue

    Periodical: Am J Med - Edition: 20240514
  • Published Date

    14 may 2024